Sunday, May 25, 2014

SO YOU WANNA GO BACK! Dream 12-04-21 EJ Ouellette - re-post

12-04-21 Dream. I dreamt I was in a dark jungle somewhere. To my left there was a giant oak tree, which seemed out of place. Suddenly without any warning a large silver plane crashed into the oak treetops. The side was ripped open and I could see dozens of people inside. My heart pounded as I climbed the tree fearing the plane would explode anytime and these people would die. When I reached the plane the occupants seemed very dazed and confused. I was un-strapping some from their seats and they were very disoriented. I wondered how I was going to get them down from the tree when I noticed one of the huge wings had extended to the ground and was on an angle like a slide. I pushed the first one down and they made it perfectly to the bottom. I worked as quickly as I could to free them and get them down the slide. They seemed drugged somehow and couldn't see the reason to get out so I was pushing them down. Some got angry and refused to leave despite my urgent pleadings. Some started back inside the plane to find their seats and hide from the ominous jungle below. I was incredibly frustrated with their inability to see the danger of staying and their resistance to me. I managed to free several when I noticed they started to climb back up the wing to get back in the plane. It was like herding cats as everyone seemed under some kind of drug that made them want to return to the destroyed plane and wait for their ultimate demise. I wanted to cry but felt I should continue trying to save them despite their stupidity.

 When I awoke I immediately thought this was about the church of today. In the past, everyone I tried to free from the delusion, turned around and went right back in and became even more deluded than before. Once they returned after being freed they seemed lost forever. Some people even craved to go back in. It was like Moses freeing his people from Egypt only to have them sneak back.-EJO
SEE ALSO THIS DREAM

Friday, May 23, 2014

Dream of the End of the World Timeline to the Mark of the Beast 666-by cgman

Dream of the End of the World Timeline to the Mark of the Beast 666

 In 2008 i had a dream from the lord about future events in my life until the 7 year tribulation, the mark of the beast 666 and the end of the world.


I was running down the road away from a dark storm. I saw homes along my path.
I turned to the right and started to run to a tree in the park. This tree had a big hole in the side. There where other people running away from the great winds behind me.
I ran inside the tree for protection and a large tornado blew across the park and almost took me with it. I held on inside the tree until it went away.
When the storm was gone i ran back to the road i was on an i knew that when i got to the corner of the road ahead of me it would be the year 2018.
I turned on that corner to the left on 2018 and i saw hundreds of empty rusted cars in a traffic jam all the way down the road.
I then turned to the left at the end of the road it was at this time i new that i was in the 7 year tribulation.
Half way down this road i saw a line of people choosing to take the mark of the beast 666 to be able to get a job to work. It was at this time i looked behind a door and saw a spirit of a woman who had not taken the mark and it was located in a dumpster room.
At the end of my dream i could remember the path i took and it was in the shape of a 6.

My path along my dream is a time line of events centering around the year 2018. Before this time around the year 2016 there will be a large tornado event which will effect many people that i believe may involve financial crisis of some kind.

It is at this time i will seek protection from the tornado. After the storm which ends at 2018 i will then see a traffic jam of old empty vehicles of people which will never fulfill there destiny. This may be caused by war or financial hardship until around the year 2025 which will begin the 7 year tribulation.

It is at this time that I will be required to accept a mark of the beast 666 to get a job or be arrested and killed in some way.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Pope Francis Goes Public With Support Of RFID Chip Implantation

In a controversial move by the Catholic church, Pope Francis has come out in vocal support of RFID Chip technologies and the extraordinary potential they hold for mankind. The outrage stems from a belief held by many Evangelicals, Fundamentalists and Catholics, that RFID implants are the Mark Of The Beast,spoken about in their Holy Book’s chapter regarding the end of the world.
Pope Francis Goes Public With Support Of RFID Chip Implantation
During the Pontiff’s weekly general address, he spoke to the crowd about his view on the RFID technology, and assured his many followers that no spiritual harm can come from receiving an RFID implant.
“We have examined the scriptures thoroughly, and I can conclusively say that there’s nothing to indicate that RFID Chips are Satanic in anyway. If anything, these devices are a blessing from God himself, bestowed upon humanity to solve many of the world’s ills.”
He went onto urge his devotees to be open minded in this era where brilliant new technological advancements are being made everyday. The Bishop of Rome explained to those in attendance his excitement over making RFID implantation a mandatory procedure for all employees and residents of the Vatican.
Last month, NBC predicted that by 2017, every American will own a RFID implant. Not surprising, considering humanities ever increasing reliance on technology. With the advent of products like Google Glass, the merging of Man and Machine inches closer each day. Widespread implantation of the RFID chip would be an enormous and historic leap into that glorious, utopian future.
Late last year the citizens of Hanna, Wyoming helped to beta test RFID implantation. Everyone residing in the small town carries an RFID device between the skin of their thumb and forefinger, using it both as an ID and a method for paying for goods and services. Towns members state that the opinion of the RFID is overwhelmingly positive, and are proud to be the first Americans to have received the implant.
Several aspects of modern society can be improved with the implementation of RFID technology. Crimes such as kidnapping and identity theft would cease to exist. In medical emergencies where the patient is incapacitated, doctors can find life saving information by scanning the individual’s RFID chip, and for those people who love shopping, you’ll never have to carry money that can be stolen, or debt cards that can be lost; Now your entire banking information is literally in the palm of you hand.
With the Pope’s endorsement and blessing, interest in RFID implantation is sure to see a wider acceptance from members of the church. This could, hopefully, be the push that this agenda needs to gain household recognition.

Thursday, May 15, 2014

6 Really Bad Charismatic Doctrines We Should Retire

Money in hand
(iStock photo)
I will never apologize for being a charismatic Christian. I had a dramatic experience with the Holy Spirit many years ago, and nobody can talk me out of it. I love the Holy Spirit’s abiding presence in my life and His supernatural gifts. I love to prophesy, speak in tongues, pray for the sick and see people changed by the Spirit’s power.
At the same time, I’m aware that since the charismatic movement began in the 1960s, people have misused the gifts of the Spirit and twisted God’s Word to promote strange doctrines or practices. Seeing these errors never caused me to question the authenticity of what the Holy Spirit had done in my life. But I knew I had to stay true to God’s Word and reject any false teachings I encountered.
My simple rule is based on 1 Thessalonians 5:21-22: “But examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good; abstain from every form of evil” (NASB). In other words: Eat the meat and spit out the bones.
As I have traveled throughout the body of Christ in recent years, I’ve experienced the good, the bad and the ugly. I love God’s people, and I know there is a healthy remnant of Spirit-filled churches that are striving to stay grounded in biblical truth. But I also know we have reached a crossroads. We must clean up our act. We must jettison any weird doctrines we might have believed or practiced that are hindering our growth today.
Here are a few of the worst errors that have circulated in our movement in the past season. You may have others that need to be added to this list. I believe we are grieving the Holy Spirit if we continue to practice these things:
1. "Touch not My anointed." Chances are you’ve heard this weird doctrine based on 1 Chronicles 16:22. In an attempt to discourage any form of disagreement in the church, insecure leaders tell their members that if they ever question church authority, they are “touching the Lord’s anointed” and in danger of God’s judgment. Let’s call this what it is: spiritual manipulation. It creates worse problems by ruling out healthy discussion and mutual respect. Church members end up being abused or controlled—or even blacklisted because they dare to ask a question.
2. Dual covenant. We charismatics love and respect Israel. Some of us even incorporate Jewish practices in our worship—such as wearing prayer shawls, blowing shofars or celebrating Hebraic feasts. These things can enrich our Christian experience—but some leaders go too far when they begin to teach that Jews don’t need to believe in Jesus Christ to experience salvation. They imply that Jews have special access into heaven simply because of their ethnic heritage. This is a flagrant contradiction of everything the New Testament teaches.
3. Inaccessible leadership. In the 1980s, some charismatic ministries began to teach pastors and traveling ministers that in order to “protect the anointing,” they must stay aloof from people. Ministers were warned to never make friends in their congregations. Preachers began the strange practice of skipping worship on Sunday mornings—and then appearing on the stage only when it was time for the sermon in order to make a dramatic entrance. Shame on these people for attempting to justify arrogance. Jesus loved people, and He made Himself available to them. So should we.
4. Armor-bearers. The same guys who developed item No. 3 started this strange fad. Preachers began the practice of surrounding themselves with an entourage: one person to carry the briefcase, another person to carry the Bible, another to carry the handkerchief. Some preachers hired bodyguards … and even food-tasters! The armor-bearers were promised special blessings if they served preachers who acted like slave-owners. Reminder: True leaders are servants, not egomaniacs.
5. The hundredfold return. Before his death in 2003, Kenneth Hagin Sr., the father of the faith movement, rebuked his own followers for taking prosperity teaching to a silly extreme. In his book The Midas Touch, he begged preachers to stop misusing Mark 10:28-30 to suggest that God promises a hundredfold return on every offering we give. Hagin wrote, “If the hundredfold return worked literally and mathematically for everyone who gave in an offering, we would have Christians walking around with not billions or trillions of dollars, but quadrillions of dollars!” Hagin taught that the hundredfold blessing refers to the rewards that come to those who leave all they have to serve God in ministry.
6. Money cometh. Jesus rebuked the Pharisees for giving money publicly to be seen by others. Yet in the 1990s, some charismatics got the wild idea that God would release a magical blessing if we would drop wads of dollar bills at the preacher’s feet while he was in the middle of his sermon. Leroy Thompson of Louisiana popularized this flamboyant practice with his infamous 1996 sermon, in which he encouraged people to shout in King James English, “Money! Cometh to me now!” Then the people would run to the front of the auditorium to pour cash into his coffers. The money came, for sure, and more cash-hungry preachers jumped on the bandwagon. Taking an offering became a form of exhibitionism, and Christians began viewing their offerings like lottery scratch-offs.
God requires holiness not just in our behavior but also in our doctrine. Let’s discard these and any other foolish teachings that have brought confusion and dishonor to the body of Christ.
J. Lee Grady is the former editor of Charisma. You can follow him on Twitter at@leegrady. He is the author of The Holy Spirit Is Not for Sale and other books.

Friday, May 9, 2014

Narcissistic personality disorder From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Narcissistic personality disorder

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the personality disorder. For more information on clinical research and types of narcissism, see Narcissism.
Narcissistic personality disorder
Classification and external resources
Narcissus-Caravaggio (1594-96) edited.jpg
Narcissus by Caravaggio. Gazing at his own reflection.
ICD-10F60.8
ICD-9301.81
MedlinePlus000934
MeSHD010554
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder[1] in which a person is excessively preoccupied with personal adequacy, power, prestige and vanity, mentally unable to see the destructive damage they are causing to themselves and to others in the process. It is estimated that this condition affects one percent of the population.[2][3] First formulated in 1968, NPD was historically called megalomania, and is a form of severeegocentrism.[4]

Contents

  [hide
  • 1 Symptoms
    • 1.1 Eating disorders
    • 1.2 Professional attainment
  • 2 Causes
    • 2.1 Theories
    • 2.2 Splitting
    • 2.3 Relationship to shame
  • 3 Diagnosis
    • 3.1 DSM-5
    • 3.2 ICD-10
    • 3.3 Subtypes
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Epidemiology
  • 6 History
  • 7 Society and culture
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links

Symptoms[edit]

Some people diagnosed with a narcissistic personality disorder are characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance. They have a sense of entitlement and demonstrate grandiosity in their beliefs and behavior. They have a strong need for admiration, but lack feelings of empathy.[5]
Symptoms of this disorder, as defined by the DSM-IV-TR, include:[1]
  • Expects to be recognized as superior and special, without superior accomplishments
  • Expects constant attention, admiration and positive reinforcement from others
  • Envies others and believes others envy him/her
  • Is preoccupied with thoughts and fantasies of great success, enormous attractiveness, power, intelligence
  • Lacks the ability to empathize with the feelings or desires of others
  • Is arrogant in attitudes and behavior
  • Has expectations of special treatment that are unrealistic
Other symptoms in addition to the ones defined by DSM-IV-TR include: Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends, has trouble keeping healthy relationships with others, easily hurt or rejected, appears unemotional, and exaggerating special achievements and talents, setting unrealistic goals for himself/herself.[6]
Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by an over-inflated sense of self-importance, as well as dramatic, emotional behavior that is in the same category as antisocial and borderline personality disorders. [7]
In addition to these symptoms, the person may display arrogance, show superiority, and seek power.[8] The symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder can be similar to the traits of individuals with strong self-esteem and confidence; differentiation occurs when the underlying psychological structures of these traits are considered pathological. Narcissists have such an elevated sense of self-worth that they value themselves as inherently better than others, when in reality they have a fragile self-esteem, cannot handle criticism, and often try to compensate for this inner fragility by belittling or disparaging others in an attempt to validate their own self-worth. Comments and criticisms about others are vicious from sufferers of NPD, in an attempt to boost their own poor self-esteem.[9]
Another narcissist symptom is a lack of empathy. They are unable to relate, understand, and rationalize the feelings of others. Instead of behaving in a way that shows how they are feeling in the moment, they behave in the way that they feel they are expected to behave or what gives them the most attention.[6]
In children, inflated self-views and grandiose feelings, which are characteristics of narcissism, are part of the normal self-development. Children typically cannot understand the difference between their actual and their ideal self, which causes an unrealistic perception of the self. After about age 8, views of the self, both positive and negative, begin to develop based on comparisons of peers, and become more realistic. Two factors that cause self-view to remain unrealistic are dysfunctional interactions with parents that can be either excessive attention or a lack thereof. For example but not limited to, the excessive attention and lack of attention go hand in hand when a child’s parents are divorced. Usually, one is overindulgent (typically the one seeing the child less) and the other shows less affection.[6] The child either compensates for lack of attention or acts in terms of unrealistic self-perception.[10]
An extensive US survey found a high association with other disabilities, especially amongst men: mental disability, substance use, mood, anxiety disorders and other personality disorders, bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders were among the associated disabilities.[11]

Eating disorders[edit]

The study of Narcissism and the Narcissistic Defenses in the Eating Disorders was concerned with the correlation between eating pathology and narcissism. Two types of narcissism were observed: core narcissism, having extremely positive (high) self-esteem combined with delusions about the level and ability of achievement; and narcissistic defenses, defenses that are triggered when self-esteem is threatened. Such narcissists maintain self-esteem by seeing themselves as misunderstood and a subject to intolerable demands.[12]
Two types of narcissistic defenses that were measured with eating pathology were "poisonous pedagogy" and "narcissistically abused". Poisonous pedagogy is one who places blame on others and is overly critical of others' inadequacies. The narcissistically abused are those who put others’ needs before theirs yet see themselves as being poorly treated. Two groups were measured: Clinical (83 women and one male with the mean age of 28.4) and Non Clinical (70 women mean age of 23.2). BMI of groups did not significantly vary. They filled out a questionnaire that was measured by eating characteristic and narcissism levels by the OMNI (O’Brien Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory) and the EDE-Q (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire). OMNI measures pathological narcissism of narcissistic personality, poisonous pedagogy, and narcissistically abused personality. EDE-Q measures the common eating disorders: restraint, eating concern, body shape concern, and body weight concern.[12]
The basic summaries of the questionnaire’s findings were the poisonous pedagogy defenses was related to restrictive mind-set; narcissistically abused defense related to restraint, eating concern, body shape concern, and body weight concern. The only main difference between the groups was the role of core narcissism in the clinical women’s levels of eating concerns. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship approaches in both groups.[12]

Professional attainment[edit]

In 2005, Board and Fritzon published the results of a study in which they interviewed senior business managers, assessing them for the presence of personality disorder.[13] Comparing their findings to three samples of psychiatric patients, they found that their senior business managers were as likely to demonstrate narcissistic traits as the patient population, although were less physically aggressive.

Causes[edit]

The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, Groopman and Cooper (2006) listed the following factors identified by various researchers as possibilities:[2]
  • An oversensitive temperament (personality traits) at birth.
  • Excessive admiration that is never balanced with realistic feedback.
  • Excessive praise for good behaviors or excessive criticism for bad behaviors in childhood.
  • Overindulgence and overvaluation by parents, other family members, or peers.
  • Being praised for perceived exceptional looks or abilities by adults.
  • Severe emotional abuse in childhood.
  • Unpredictable or unreliable caregiving from parents.
  • Learning manipulative behaviors from parents.
  • Valued by parents as a means to regulate their own self-esteem.
Some narcissistic traits are common with a normal developmental phase. When these traits are compounded by a failure of the interpersonal environmentand continue into adulthood, they may intensify to the point where NPD is diagnosed.[14]
Recent research has identified a structural abnormality in the brains of those with narcissistic personality disorder, specifically noting less volume of gray matter in the left anterior insula.[15][16] This brain region relates to empathycompassionemotional regulation, and cognitive functioning.[17]

Theories[edit]

Pathological narcissism occurs in a spectrum of severity. In its more extreme forms, it is narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). NPD is considered to result from a person's belief that they are flawed in a way that makes them fundamentally unacceptable to others.[18] This belief is held below the person's conscious awareness; such a person would, if questioned, typically deny thinking such a thing. To protect themselves against the intolerably painful rejection and isolation that (they imagine) would follow if others recognized their (perceived) defective nature, such people make strong attempts to control others’ views of them and behavior towards them.
Pathological narcissism can develop from an impairment in the quality of the person's relationship with their primary caregivers, usually their parents, in that the parents could not form a healthy and empathic attachment to them.[19] This results in the child's perception of himself/herself as unimportant and unconnected to others. The child typically comes to believe they have some personality defect that makes them unvalued and unwanted.[20]
To the extent that people are pathologically narcissistic, they can be controlling, blaming, self-absorbed, intolerant of others’ views, unaware of others' needs and of the effects of their behavior on others, and insistent that others see them as they wish to be seen.[21]
Narcissistic individuals use various strategies to protect the self at the expense of others. They tend to devalue, derogate and blame others, and they respond to threatening feedback with anger and hostility.[22]
People who are narcissistic commonly feel rejected, humiliated and threatened when criticised. To protect themselves from these dangers, they often react with disdain, rage, and/or defiance to any slight criticism, real or imagined.[23] To avoid such situations, some narcissistic people withdraw socially and may feign modesty or humility. In cases where the narcissistic personality-disordered individual feels a lack of admiration, adulation, attention and affirmation, they may also manifest a desire to be feared and be notorious (narcissistic supply).
Although individuals with NPD are often ambitious and capable, the inability to tolerate setbacks, disagreements or criticism, along with lack of empathy, make it difficult for such individuals to work cooperatively with others or to maintain long-term professional achievements.[24] With narcissistic personality disorder, the individual's self-perceived fantastic grandiosity, often coupled with a hypomanic mood, is typically not commensurate with his or her real accomplishments.

Splitting[edit]

Main article: Splitting (psychology)
People who are diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder use splitting as a central defense mechanism. According to psychoanalyst Kernberg, "The normal tension between actual self on the one hand, and ideal object on the other, is eliminated by the building up of an inflated self-concept within which the actual self and the ideal self and ideal object are confused. At the same time, the remnants of the unacceptable images are repressed and projected onto external objects, which are devalued."[25]
The merging of the "inflated self-concept" and the "actual self" is seen in the inherent grandiosity of narcissistic personality disorder. Also inherent in this process are the defense mechanisms of devaluationidealization and denial.[26] Other people are either manipulated as an extension of one's own self, who serve the sole role of giving "admiration and approval"[27] or they are seen as worthless (because they cannot collude with the narcissist's grandiosity).[28]

Relationship to shame[edit]

It has been suggested that narcissistic personality disorder may be related to defenses against shame.[29] Psychiatrist Glen Gabbard suggested NPD could be broken down into two subtypes.[30] He saw the "oblivious" subtype as being grandiose, arrogant, and thick-skinned, and the "hypervigilant" subtype as being easily hurt, oversensitive, and ashamed. In his view, the oblivious subtype presents for admiration, envy, and appreciation of a powerful, grandiose self that is the antithesis of a weak internalized self, which hides in shame, while the hypervigilant subtype neutralizes devaluation by seeing others as unjust abusers. Dr.Jeffrey Young, who coined the term "Schema Therapy", a technique originally developed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck (1979), also links NPD and shame. He sees the so-called Defectiveness Schema as a core schema of NPD, along with the Emotional Deprivation and Entitlement Schemas.[31]

Diagnosis[edit]

DSM-5[edit]

The formulation of narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-IV was criticised for failing to describe the range and complexity of the disorder. Critics say it focuses overly on "the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns—at the expense of ... internal complexity and individual suffering," which reduces its clinical utility.[32]
The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group originally proposed the elimination of NPD as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 as part of a major revamping of the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders,[33][34] replacing a categorical with a dimensional approach based on the severity of dysfunctional personality trait domains.
Some clinicians objected to this, characterizing the new diagnostic system as an "unwieldy conglomeration of disparate models that cannot happily coexist" and may have limited usefulness in clinical practice.[35]
In July 2011, the Work Group came back with a major revision to their original proposal. In this revision, NPD was reinstated with dramatic changes to its definition.[36] The general move towards a dimensional (personality trait-based) view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained despite the reintroduction of NPD.

ICD-10[edit]

The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists narcissistic personality disorder under (F60.8) Other specific personality disorders.[37]
It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.

Subtypes[edit]

Theodore Millon identified five narcissist subtypes,[3][38] however, there are few pure variants of any subtype,[38] and the subtypes are not recognized in the DSM or ICD.
SubtypeDescriptionPersonality Traits
Unprincipled narcissistIncluding antisocial features. A charlatan who is a fraudulent, exploitative, deceptive, and unscrupulous individualDeficient conscience; unscrupulous, amoral, disloyal, fraudulent, deceptive, arrogant, exploitive; a con man and charlatan; dominating, contemptuous, vindictive.
Amorous narcissistIncluding histrionic features. The Don Juan orCasanova of our times who is erotic, exhibitionistSexually seductive, enticing, beguiling, tantalizing; glib and clever; disinclines real intimacy; indulges hedonistic desires; bewitches and inveigles others; pathological lying and swindling.
CompensatorynarcissistIncluding negativistic and avoidant featuresSeeks to counteract or cancel out deep feelings of inferiority and lack of self-esteem; offsets deficits by creating illusions of being superior, exceptional, admirable, noteworthy; self-worth results from self-enhancement.
ElitistnarcissistVariant of “pure” pattern. Corresponds to Wilhelm Reich's "phallic narcissistic" personality typeFeels privileged and empowered by virtue of special childhood status and pseudo achievements; entitled fa├žade bears little relation to reality; seeks favored and good life; is upwardly mobile; cultivates special status and advantages by association.
FanaticnarcissistIncluding paranoid featuresAn individual whose self-esteem was severely arrested during childhood, who usually displays major paranoid tendencies, and who holds on to an illusion of omnipotence. These people are fighting delusions of insignificance and lost value, and trying to re-establish their self-esteem through grandiose fantasies and self-reinforcement. When unable to gain recognition or support from others, they take on the role of a heroic or worshipped person with a grandiose mission.
Other theorists have identified two types of narcissism. Those narcissists who have been diagnosed with narcissistic grandiosity express behavior "through interpersonally exploitative acts, lack of empathy, intense envy, aggression, and exhibitionism."[39] Another type of narcissism is narcissistic vulnerability. It entails (on a conscious level) "helplessness, emptiness, low self-esteem, and shame, which can be expressed in the behavior as being socially avoidant in situations where their self-presentation is not possible so they withdraw, or the approval they need/expect is not being met."[39]

Treatment[edit]

Clinical strategies are outlined by Heinz Kohut, Stephen M. Johnson and James F. Masterson, while Johns[20] discusses a continuum of severity and the kinds of therapy most effective in different cases. Schema Therapy, a form of therapy developed by Jeffrey Young that integrates several therapeutic approaches (psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral etc.), also offers an approach for the treatment of NPD.[40] It is unusual for people to seek therapy for NPD. This is partly due to the NPD sufferers’ not believing they have a problem. Most, if not all, are unable to see the destructive damage they are causing to themselves and to others and usually only seek treatment at the insistence of relatives and friends.[6] Unconscious fears of exposure or inadequacy often cause defensive disdain of therapeutic processes.[41][42] Pattern change strategies, over a long period of time, are for narcissists to work on increasing their ability to become more empathetic in everyday relationships. To help modify their sense of entitlement and self-centeredness schema, the strategy is to help them identify how to utilize their unique talents and to help others for reasons other than their own personal gain. This is not so much to change their self-perception of their "entitlement" feeling but more to help them empathize with others. Another type of treatment would be temperament change.[43]
Anger, rage, impulsivity and impatience can be worked on with skill training. Therapy is not one hundred percent effective because patients receive feedback poorly and defensively. Anxiety disorders and somatoma dysfunctions are prevalent but the most common would be depression. Medication has proven ineffective for treating narcissistic personality disorder, but psychoanalytic psychotherapy has a higher success rate. Therapists must recognize the patient’s traits and use caution in tearing down narcissistic defenses too quickly.
Group treatment has its benefits as the effectiveness of receiving peer feedback rather than the clinician’s may be more accepted, but group therapy can also contradict itself as the patient may show "demandingness, egocentrism, social isolation and withdrawal, and socially deviant behavior." Researchers originally thought group therapy among Narcissists would fail because it was believed that group therapy required empathy that NPD patients lack. However, studies show group therapy does hold value for patients because it lets them explore boundaries, develop trust, increase self-awareness, and accept feedback.[6]Relationship therapy stresses the importance of learning and applying four basic interpersonal skills: "...effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution."[6]
Marital/relationship therapy is most beneficial when both partners participate.[43]

Epidemiology[edit]

Lifetime prevalence is estimated at 1% in the general population and 2% to 16% in clinical populations.[2][44]
In 2009, Twenge and Campbell conducted studies suggesting that the incidence of NPD had more than doubled in the US in the prior 10 years, and that 1 in 16 of the population have experienced NPD.[45]
"A nationwide study in the United States found that 7.7 percent of men and 4.8 percent of women could be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (Stinson et al., 2008). These data also suggest that narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent among younger adults, possibly supporting the impression that narcissistic personality disorder is on the rise as a result of social and economic conditions that support more extreme versions of self-focused individualism (Bender, 2012)." [46]

History[edit]

The use of the term "narcissism" to describe excessive vanity and self-centeredness predates by many years the modern medical classification of narcissistic personality disorder. The condition was named after Narcissus, a mythological Greek youth who became infatuated with his own reflection in a lake. He did not realize at first that it was his own reflection, but when he did, he died out of grief for having fallen in love with someone that did not exist outside of himself.
The term "narcissistic personality structure" was introduced by Kernberg in 1967[47] and "narcissistic personality disorder" first proposed by Heinz Kohut in 1968.[48]

Society and culture[edit]

In the film To Die ForNicole Kidman's character wants to appear on television at all costs, even if this involves murdering her husband. A psychiatric assessment of her character noted that she "was seen as a prototypical narcissistic person by the raters: on average, she satisfied 8 of 9 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder... had she been evaluated for personality disorders, she would receive a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder."[49]